In the Southeast Asian multi-ethnic state of Myanmar, armed conflicts between state security forces and various ethnic groups have been ongoing for more than 70 years. With its natural resources and central location in Southeast Asia, the country has great development potential. Nevertheless, Myanmar still ranks 149th out of 190 countries on the Human Development Index, which takes into account income, life expectancy and educational opportunities (as of 2022).
Conflict, lack of investment in infrastructure and recurring natural disasters have left their mark on the country. In addition to extreme weather conditions, climate change is hitting Myanmar particularly hard. In 2019, for the seventh year in a row, the country ranked second among the countries that have been most affected by the impacts of global warming worldwide over the past 20 years (Global Climate Risk Index by Germanwatch). Nevertheless, the country has so far been ill-prepared for the challenges of climate change. Tropical storms, storm surges and tsunamis repeatedly hit the coastal regions. Large parts of the country are threatened by earthquakes, floods, landslides and droughts.
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